What is 3-Fluorophenmetrazine?
3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) belongs to phenylmorpholine chemical class that specifically exhibited stimulant properties. It is a synthetic chemical molecule of amphetamine family. In literature, it was previously being recognized as “PAL-593” so a lot of information on this drug can be retrieved using the old name. This substance is structurally analogous to a popular phenmetrazine, which in 1950’s in Europe was popularly being utilized for its stimulant and weight-loss (marketed as “appetite suppressant”) characteristics. But as the concern over addiction and other misuse potential arises, this substance was withdrawn from market.
As it belongs to amphetamine family having alpha-methylated phenethylamines, this phenethylamine core which contains a phenyl ring is attached to an amino group (-NH2) through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at R. On R3 position of the phenyl ring, the fluorine atom is attached, that is why the 3-FPM is called as a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine. The amphetamine skeleton, in part, is incorporated into a morpholine ring. While on R2 position of this chain, an oxygen group is attached. Through an ethyl chain, this oxygen group is linked to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group.
Due to its dependence and addiction potential, it is important to observe harm reduction practices that includes but is not limited to starting with lower doses due to difference between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism and personal sensitivity. This will help in counteracting the undesirable effects of chemical substance. When addiction develops in an individual, it is more likely that the person would experience withdrawal effects on abrupt stoppage. Moreover, like any other psychoactive substance, the drug is safe to use, but combination/mixing of drug with other substances can cause life-threatening effects.
Bioactivity of 3-Ffpm
The 3-FPM is pharmacologically a sympathomimetic drug and exhibits stimulant properties. The mechanism of action it follows is by acting as a releasing agent for dopamine and norepinephrine, thereby increasing its concentrations in the synaptic cleft of neurons in the brain. This causes an accumulation of neurotransmitters that eventually produces euphoric effects.
In humans, the scientific literature has limited data on the pharmacological properties, metabolism and toxicity of 3-FPM. The reason for non-existence of human consumption was that it was not sold until 2014, after that, online vendors started selling it as a gray area research chemical.
Some anecdotal reports have considered 3-FPM to be less nervousness, euphoria, insomnia producing, when compared to stimulants that belong to substituted amphetamine class. This is because it inducing lesser degree of release of dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline as compared to phenmetrazine.
Expected Physical effects of 3F-phenmetrazine
The physical effects reported based on subjective effect index and personal experiences of users are stimulation that energizes body, abnormal heart beat, increase in heart rate, appetite suppression, stamina enhancement, dehydration, increase in perspiration, frequent urination, dry mouth, vasoconstriction, increased libido, pupil dilation and teeth grinding.
On administration, it causes stimulation, enhances focus and motivation, accelerates thought, increases wakefulness and produces euphoria. Other cogni